Support for Competence

According to self-determination theory, self-regulated learning is contingent on the child feeling academically competent. How can teachers foster in children cognitive and social competencies required for adaptive help seeking, and additionally, how can they help children appreciate the importance of help seeking as a means to achieve academic success First, teachers establish an overall context for the child's learning. I have already discussed the importance of classroom, or contextual,...

Index

At 7-8 years, 64-65 academic, 63-64 awareness of, 62 beliefs about stability, 66, 69 beliefs in, 17, 57 age differences, 82 intrinsic motivation and, 70 motivational value, 80-81 performance and, 70 change in definition, 66 changes in conceptions in childhood, 206-207 changes in perceptions of, 65-67 children's view, 2-3 conceptions of, 68 at 10-12 years, 63, 67-70 at 12-13 years, 270 at 7-8 years, 63 early phase, 62-67 evaluation and, 57 evaluators and, 77-78 failure in young children, 60...

Intrinsic Motivation In A Classroom References

The social psychology of creativity. New York Springer-Verlag. Avery, R. R., & Ryan, R, M. (1988). Object relations and ego development Comparison and correlates in middle childhood, journal of Personality, 547-569. Boggiano, A. K Main, D. S., & Katz, P. (1991). Mastery motivation in boys and girls The role of intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation. Sex Rofes, 25, 511-520. Chantel, Y., Guay, F., & Vallerand, R. f. (1996). A structural analysis of the motivational...

Peer Influence

Peers influence children's self-efficacy through model similarity. Observing similar others succeed can raise children's self-efficacy and motivate them to perform the task if they believe that they, too, will be successful (Schunk, 1987). Observing others fail can lead students to believe that they lack the compe tence to succeed and dissuade them from attempting the task. Model similarity is most influential for students uncertain about their performance capabilities, such as those lacking...

References

Aiming reading instruction at deeper understanding. In M. S. Knapp and Associates, Teaching for meaning in high-poverty classrooms (pp. 64-83). New York Teachers College Press. Ames, N. (1998). Middle grades curriculum, instruction and assessment. Newton, MA Education Development Center. Ames, N. L., & Miller, E. (1994). Changing middle schools How to make schools work for young adolescents. San Francisco lossey-Bass. Anderman, E. M., Maehr, M. L., & Midgley, C....

Perspectives On Social Goals

What are social goals Although definitions vary slightly as a function of theoretical perspective, goals are generally referred to as cognitive representations of future events that are powerful motivators of behavior (Austin & Vancouver, 1996 Bandura, 1986 Ford, 1992 Pervin, 1983). An underlying assumption of this definition is that people do set goals for themselves and in the case of social goals, to achieve specific social outcomes (e.g., making a friend) or to interact with others in...

Authenticity and Meaningfulness

A fourth theme in the recommendations concerns the authenticity of instruction. Teachers are encouraged to make connections between classroom instruction and children's lives outside of school and to take advantage of children's personal interests, so that instruction is personally meaningful. Motivation research on interest provides good evidence that text relevant to an individual's interests promotes attention and effort (Krapp, 1999 Renninger, Hidi, & Krapp, 1992 Schiefele & Krapp,...

Selfdetermination And Transitions

Researchers have defined transitions in diverse ways. Across theories, however, most agree that transitions involve a life change and that there is the potential for anxiety and distress. One way of minimizing distress is to acknowledge and accommodate to the change involved. Self-determination is particularly important during times of change because self-determination facilitates problem solving and flexible strategies in new situations. Specifically, individuals who are more self-determined...

The Role of Efficacy and Competence judgments

An important component of most models of self-regulation is the monitoring of performance (phase 2 in Table 1) in terms of progress towards a goal that provides information about the discrepancy between the goal and the current state (Pintrich, 2000c). In cognitive models this type of monitoring has been labeled judgments of learning or OLs (Nelson & Narens, 1990 Pintrich, Wolters, & Baxter, 2000). It is assumed that as students judge their progress, their understanding, or their...

The Early Phase of Ability Conceptions 7 and 8Year Olds

Although some evidence of ability awareness can be found in younger children (see Butler, 1998 Marsh, Craven, & Debus, 1991 Stipek & Daniels, 1988), it is at 7-8 years old that children suddenly become far more interested in ability their social comparison changes sharply to reflect their growing concern with relative performance and relative ability. Frey and Ruble (1985) report that most of kindergarten children's classroom social comparisons are related to social concerns (friendship...

Defining Goal Orientations

Researchers have identified several types of goal orientations. Although most definitions share a common underlying theme, there are subtle differences in these terms and in their interpretations. In addition, these different terms have evolved historically via different programs of research. Goal Orientations Concerned with Learning, Effort, and Improvement First, goal orientation researchers have identified an orientation in which the learner is focused on task mastery, improvement, and...

Social Goal Pursuit as an Aspect of Competence

A second perspective on social goals is based on the assumption that pursuit of specific social goals is a critical aspect of situational competence. In contrast to the social-cognitive approach, this perspective does not focus on children's understanding of which goals are appropriate in a given social situation but rather on the extent to which pursuit of certain socially valued goals contributes to situation-specific competence. Indeed, Bronfenbrenner (1989) argues that competence can be...

Reference On Intrinsic Motivation Eccles

Classrooms Goals, structures, and student motivation, journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 261-271. Assor, A., & Connell, 1. P. (1992). The validity of students' self-reports as measures of performance affecting self-appraisals. In D. H. Schunk & I. L. Meece (Eds.) Student self- perceptions in the classroom (pp. 25-47). Hillsdale, NJ Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Atkinson, J. W. (1957). Motivational determinants of risk taking behavior. Psychological Review, 64, 359-372....

Conclusion

Self-efficacy has been shown to play an important role in achievement contexts, and much research supports the idea that it can influence the instigation, direction, persistence, and outcomes of achievement-related actions. In this chapter we have traced how self-efficacy changes with development and have elucidated variables that affect this change. We also have suggested profitable areas of future research. We are encouraged by the rapid increase in self-efficacy research. The future should...

Social Goals as Generalized Motivational Orientations

Social goals also have been defined as relatively enduring aspects of personality that orient an individual toward achieving specific outcomes in social situations. McClelland's identification of need for affiliation as a powerful explanatory construct represents some of the earliest work on social orientations and needs (see McClelland, 1987). According to McClelland, people with a high need for affiliation tend to display a concern over establishing, maintaining, or restoring a positive,...

Eccles Wigfield And Colleagues Expectancyvalue Model

Achievement Motivation Psychology

Eccles et al. (1983) developed an expectancy-value model of achievement choice as a framework for understanding early adolescents' and adolescents' performance and choice in the mathematics achievement domain. Figure 1 presents a recent version of the model. Eccles et al. (1983) proposed that children's achievement performance, persistence, and choice of achievement tasks are most directly predicted by their expectancies for success on those tasks and the subjective value they attach to success...

The Development of Academic Self Regulation The Role of Cognitive and Motivational Factors

PINTRICH AND AKANE ZUSHO The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan The development of the capability to self-regulate cognition, motivation, affect, and behavior is an important developmental task. It is clear from research on cognitive and emotional development that the capabilities to regulate cognition and affect are key for adaptive growth and development (Saarni, Mumme, & Campos, 1998 Schneider & Bjorklund, 1998 Thompson, 1998). Research on academic learning also has...

Social Cognitive Theory

Self-efficacy is grounded in a larger theoretical framework known as social cognitive theory, which postulates that human achievement depends on interactions between one's behaviors, personal factors (e.g., thoughts, beliefs), and environmental conditions (Bandura, 1986, 1997). In this view, self-efficacy affects one's behaviors and the environments with which one interacts, and is influenced by actions and conditions. Self-efficacy is hypothesized to have effects on task choice, effort,...

Caring About Learning A Retrospective Study

The most recent cohort of Berkeley students, some 460 in number, were asked to track, retrospectively, the events in school they recalled as having been especially influential in shaping their motivation to achieve, and especially caring about what they were learning, apart from grade considerations. These memories were prompted through a series of self-report, Likert-type questions designed to elicit recollections regarding the extent to which basic needs were or were not met in school....

Self Worth Theory

The basic perspective taken by our inquiries is that all achievement dynamics, including the valuing of intrinsic rewards, depend on a central, pervasive, and ongoing developmental need that involves establishing and maintaining a sense of personal worth. According to self-worth theory Covington, 1992, 1998 Covington amp Beery, 1976 , most students equate their sense of worth with the ability to achieve successfully. But the meaning and perceived role of ability in this equation can differ...

What Develops In Selfregulated Learning

In our definition, self-regulated learning is an active, constructive process whereby learners set goals for their learning and then attempt to monitor, regulate, and control their cognition, motivation, and behavior in the service of those goals, guided and constrained by both personal characteristics and the contextual features in the environment Pintrich, 2000c . This definition is similar to other models of academic self-regulated learning e.g., Butler amp Winne, 1995 Zimmerman, 1986 1989,...

Attributions

What does failure mean In line with their focus on ability and concerns about ability, students with an entity theory are more likely than those with an incremental theory to attribute their failures to a lack of ability rather than to effort, while incremental students key on effort Dweck amp Sorich, 1999 Henderson amp Dweck, 1990 see also Hong, Chiu, Dweck, Lin, amp Wan, 1999 Robins amp Pals, 1998 . This, too, is true for students in both the United States and Korea Kim, Grant, amp Dweck,...

Self Regulation as a Depletable Resource

The cognitive factors discussed to this point focus attention on the role of limited cognitive resources in terms of capacity of working memory and the costs or benefits associated with using cognitive resources to self-regulate. Prior knowledge, strategies, and different types of theories may facilitate self-regulation because they lessen the demands on working memory, allowing cognitive resources to be used for self-regulatory purposes, or change the goal structures that guide self-regulatory...