Goal Setting Motivational Software

Goalsontrack Smart Goal Setting Software

GoalsOnTrack.com is one of its kind goal-oriented web based application. The software has been designed to assist people in setting, tracking, and reaching personal and professional goals. This web based application keeps track of your progress towards the goal. The primary objective of this web application as it annunciates is getting things done. GoalsOnTrack has a very basic sign-up all you need is a valid email address. A speedy confirmation is sent to your inbox with details on how to log-in. Once you log-in you have a nicely design dashboard where you can begin recording your goals. After your goals for the week, month, or even year has been entered the task editor will quickly organize the objectives in order of importance. Everyday a checklist of the things you need to do appears under each specific goal. As you complete them percentage of progress status is highlighted. The journal operates as a blog or notepad. Past entries are automatically archived. Continue reading...

Goalsontrack Smart Goal Setting Software Summary


4.7 stars out of 14 votes

Contents: Software
Creator: Vancouver IT Services, Inc.
Official Website: www.goalsontrack.com
Price: $9.95

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My Goalsontrack Smart Goal Setting Software Review

Highly Recommended

Some users might complain that the default interface is more complicated than it needs to be. If you just panicked grab a quick drink and relax because this baby has a full customizable interface.

However, Goalsontrack Smart Goal Setting Software is a fairly good program considering the standard and depth of the material it provides. In addition to being effective and its great ease of use, this software makes worth every penny of its price.

The Development Of Goal Orientation

What is a Goal Orientation 197 Defining Goal Orientations 198 Reconciling Differences between the Various Definitions 200 The Importance of Goal Orientations 201 The Development of Goal Orientation 203 Goal Orientations in Young Children 203 Self-Perceptions of Ability and Goal Orientations during Childhood 206 Summary 207 Goal Orientation in Adolescents 207 Influences of Goal Orientations during Adolescence 207 Classroom Influences on Goal Orientations during Adolescence 208 School Influences on Goal Orientations during Adolescence 211 Goal Orientations in High School 213 Discussion 213 9. THE CONTRIBUTION OF SOCIAL GOAL SETTING TO CHILDREN'S SCHOOL ADJUSTMENT Social Goal Setting as a Social-Cognitive Skill 222 Social Goal Pursuit as an Aspect of Competence 225 Social Goals as Generalized Motivational Orientations 228 Coordinating Multiple Perspectives on Social Goal Setting 232 The Development of Social Goals 233 Social Orientations and Needs 234 Context-Specific Competence and Goal...

What Is A Goal Orientation

Goal orientations have to do with students' reasons for engaging in academic tasks. Whereas some goals are related specifically to what a student is trying to achieve (e.g., the goal of getting an A in a chemistry course), goal orientations deal with students' reasons for taking the chemistry course in the first place (Urdan, 1997). As noted in a special issue of Contemporary Educational Psychology, there is much confusion in the achievement motivation literature with regard to terminology (Murphy & Alexander, 2000). This confusion is particularly evident in the literature on achievement goal orientations (Pintrich, 2000).

The Importance of Goal Orientations

Why should we care about the development of goal orientations Basically, we should be concerned about goal orientations because they predict important and valued educational outcomes. Indeed, students' reasons for engaging in various academic tasks are directly related to the types of cognitive strategies they use, as well as to how well newly learned material is stored in long-term memory. Many studies have used a goal orientation framework over the past 20 years. For mastery goals, the results have been fairly consistent The endorsement of mastery goals generally is related to positive educational outcomes, such as long-term learning, the use of deep cognitive strategies, and relating material to prior knowledge (e.g., Ames & Archer, 1988 Anderman & Young, 1994 Meece, Blumenfeld, & Hoyle, 1988 Nolen, 1988 Nolen & Hala-dyna, 1990 Pintrich, 2000 Pintrich & DeGroot, 1990 Pintrich & Garcia, 1991 Pintrich & Schunk, 1996 Urdan, 1997). For performance goals, the...

Goal Orientations and School Practices

Results of various studies of variables related to goal orientations have extremely important implications for the education of children and adolescents. Research clearly indicates that schools have a profound impact on students (e.g., Maehr, 1991 Roeser, Eccles, & Sameroff, 2000). In terms of goal orientation theory, goal orientations are related strongly to the practices of schools (Anderman & Maehr, 1994 Anderman, Maher, & Midgley, 1999 Maehr, 1991 Maehr & Anderman, 1993 Midgley, Anderman, & Hicks, 1995). When school personnel use practices that encourage social comparison and make ability differences salient, performance goals become significant in contrast, when school personnel use practices that focus on improvement, effort, and self-comparisons, mastery goals become prominent (Maehr & Midgley, 1996). These issues will be addressed in greater detail later in this chapter.

Goal Orientations In Young Children

There has been very little research on achievement goal orientations with young children. Nevertheless, some related work suggests that motivational However, work by Carol Dweck and her colleagues has examined young children's motivational patterns. Dweck has distinguished between two patterns of learning a mastery-oriented pattern and a helpless pattern (e.g., Diener & Dweck, 1978 Dweck & Reppucci, 1973). The helpless pattern is characterized by an avoidance of challenge and a deterioration of performance in the face of obstacles (Dweck & Leggett, 1988, p. 256), whereas the mastery-oriented pattern involves the seeking of challenging tasks and the generation of effective strategies in the face of obstacles (Dweck & Leggett, 1988, p. 257). Dweck's research on achievement goal orientations differs from that of others in that Dweck focuses on goal orientations as a function of individual characteristics, whereas others (e.g., Ames, 1992 Maehr & Midgley, 1996) focus on...

Goal Orientation In Adolescents

In recent years, there has been much research on goal orientations during adolescence. Much of this research is based on Eccles and Midgley's discussion of stage-environment fit (Eccles & Midgley, 1989). Specifically, Eccles, Midg-ley, and their colleagues have argued and demonstrated that for many early adolescents, learning environments change dramatically as students make the transition from elementary to middle school. The typical middle school often provides the type of environment that is antithetical to the developmental needs of early adolescents consequently, during early adolescence, there often is a decline in academic motivation (see also Anderman & Maehr, 1994).

Influences of Goal Orientations during Adolescence

Does endorsing a mastery or performance goal orientation lead to different outcomes for students Do mastery and performance goals interact in the prediction of various outcomes Research indicates that during the adolescent years, the endorsement of mastery and performance goals becomes particularly important because they lead to different types of outcomes for adolescents. These outcomes include the use of differing cognitive processing strategies, different effects on learning, and differing approaches to academic tasks. Nolen (1988) examined the relations between adolescents' goal orientations and the use of deep- and surface-level cognitive processing strategies. Pajares and his colleagues (Pajares, Britner, & Valiante, 2000) examined mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoid goal orientations in middle school students, in both writing and science. One of the more intriguing results of this study was that performance-approach goals were unrelated to the writing...

Classroom Influences on Goal Orientations during Adolescence

Much of the research on achievement goal orientations during adolescence has focused on students' perceptions of the goal stresses in the classroom. Research indicates that students' endorsements of mastery and performance goals changes during the adolescent years. In general, research indicates that students tend to endorse performance goals more, and mastery goals less, as they progress through adolescence. This is particularly true of research on changes in students' goal orientations across the transition from elementary to middle school (e.g., Anderman & Anderman, 1999). In general, results of a number of studies indicate that these shifts in goal orientations are due to changes in school goal stresses.

School Influences on Goal Orientations during Adolescence

Research has demonstrated that students' perceptions of the school culture are related to personal goal orientations during adolescence. Using a large sample of eighth graders, Roeser, Midgley, and Urdan (1996) demonstrated that students who perceived their school as stressing performance (ability) goals were likely to endorse personal performance (relative ability) goals however, perceiving the environment as being mastery (task) focused was related to the endorsement of personal mastery (task) goals. Results of this study also indicated that the endorsement of personal performance goals was related to self-consciousness, whereas the endorsement of personal mastery goals was related to academic self-efficacy and to positive school affect. Midgley et al. (1995) used samples of both elementary and middle school students to examine the relations between perceived school culture and personal achievement goal orientations. They found that perceptions of a school-wide performance goal...

Social Goal Setting as a Social Cognitive Skill

Mation and act on it in certain ways. Goal setting is described further by Dodge as a component process of social decision making that acts in tandem with other social-cognitive processes, including encoding and interpretation of social cues, and generation and evaluation of possible responses, to eventually determine behavior. Research on Social Goal Setting as a Social-Cognitive Process Research on social goal setting as a social-cognitive process has focused on two related issues. First, researchers have sought to document the quality of goals that socially competent and incompetent children set in specific social situations. In addition, these goal-setting skills have been related to other information processing skills such as choice of problem-solving strategies and affect regulation. To study these issues, researchers have focused primarily on elementary school-aged children's reactions to hypothetical situations in which conflict between peers is described. Typically, children...

Coordinating Multiple Perspectives on Social Goal Setting

Thus far, I have described three somewhat unique perspectives on social goals, each with different implications for understanding school adjustment. However, a more coherent understanding of social goals might be possible if these perspectives are considered to be part of an interrelated system of motivational processes. Indeed, it is likely that these perspectives are not mutually exclusive but rather reflect various levels of generality at which goals and their contribution to motivation might be studied. This section describes ways to integrate these various perspectives into a more cohesive picture of social goal setting at school. In what ways might these three approaches be compatible with each other At the most basic level, social goal setting can be viewed as a response to how we perceive and understand our social worlds. Most often these perceptions reflect the demands of the social situations we are experiencing at a given moment, and our understanding of what can and cannot...

Social Cognition and Goal Setting

Few researchers have examined socialization processes that might influence social-cognitive aspects of social goal setting, especially the degree to which students believe that classrooms afford opportunities to achieve social goals. However, these beliefs are likely to reflect to some degree cultural or social orientations towards goal pursuit and situational affordances learned at home (see, e.g., Fordham & Ogbu, 1986 Okagaki & Sternberg, 1993 Phelan, Davidson, & Cao, 1991). If students' beliefs about appropriate school-related goals do not match those of the classroom, they are likely to feel alienated and to disengage. To illustrate, students who come to school with strong motives to behave prosocially rather than competitively (e.g., Knight & Kagan, 1977) might develop a generalized belief that classrooms are antagonistic to their social needs. This would be especially true if they have a history of interacting with teachers who have rewarded demonstrations of...

Defining Goal Orientations

Researchers have identified several types of goal orientations. Although most definitions share a common underlying theme, there are subtle differences in these terms and in their interpretations. In addition, these different terms have evolved historically via different programs of research. Goal Orientations Concerned with Learning, Effort, and Improvement First, goal orientation researchers have identified an orientation in which the learner is focused on task mastery, improvement, and self-comparison. These goals have been operationalized and defined somewhat differently by various researchers. Dweck and her colleagues (e.g., Dweck & Leggett, 1988) discuss learning goals. They suggest that when students adopt learning goals, their goal when doing an academic task is to increase their competence (Dweck & Leggett, 1988, p. 256). Using this operationalization, Dweck and her colleagues have demonstrated that the adoption of learning goals is associated with the belief that one's...

Organization And Contents Of The Book

The second question, Do I want to do this activity and why , focuses on the reasons and purposes children have for engaging or not engaging in different achievement activities. Even if they are quite competent at an activity, children may not engage in it if they do not have a purpose for doing. The constructs included in this section are central to this choice aspect of motivation. We include in this section chapters on achievement values, self-determination, interest, goal orientation, and social goals and their relations to motivation.

Overview Of Chapters Focused On Reasons For Engaging In Achievement Activities

Chapters 8 and 9 focus on children's goals for achievement, as goal orientations and other kinds of goals have received much research attention of late in the achievement motivation literature. Anderman, Austin, and Johnson discuss the development of children's goal orientations, focusing on the mastery and performance goal orientations that have been prominent in the literature and the recent distinction between performance approach and performance avoid goal orientations. Anderman and his colleagues begin Chapter 8 with a discussion of the different terms that have been used for these goal orientations in the literature, a crucial discussion because of debates about the meaning of these different terms. They then move to a discussion of the development of goal orientations during childhood and adolescence, discussing in particular how changes in the school and classroom environments as children move into middle school and influence children's goal orientations so that they become...

Selfefficacy For Learning And Achievement

As students engage in activities, they are affected by personal (e.g., goal setting, information processing) and situational influences (e.g., rewards, teacher feedback). These factors provide students with cues about how well they are learning. Motivation and self-efficacy are enhanced when students perceive they are performing well or becoming more skillful. Lack of success or slow progress will not necessarily lower self-efficacy and motivation if learners believe they can perform better by adjusting their approach (e.g., expending more effort, using effective task strategies Schunk, 1995).

Post a picture of your goal someplace visible near your desk or on your refrigerator for example

Visualizing your goal, exactly how you think it will be when you've achieved it, whether it's financial goals like traveling to Rome or building a dream house, or physical goals like finishing a marathon or getting a flat stomach, is a great motivator and one of the best ways of actualizing your goals.

Give it time be patient

I know, this is easier said than done. But the problem with many of us is that we expect quick results. When you think about your goals, think long term. If you want to lose weight, you may see some quick initial losses, but it will take a long time to lose the rest. If you want to run a marathon, you won't be able to do it overnight. If you don't see the results you want soon, don't give up give it time. In the meantime, be happy with your progress so far, and with your ability to stick with your goals. The results will come if you give it time.

Reward yourself Often

And not just for longer-term goals, either. I've talked about breaking larger goals into smaller, mini goals. Well, each of those mini goals should have a reward attached to it. Make a list of your goals, with mini goals, and next to each, write down an appropriate reward. By appropriate, I mean 1) it's proportionate to the size of the goal (don't reward going on a 1-mile run with a luxury cruise in the Bahamas) and 2) it doesn't ruin your goal if you are trying to lose weight, don't reward a day of healthy eating with a dessert binge. It's self-defeating.

Create a friendly mutuallysupportive competition

We are all competitive in nature, at least a little. Some more than others. Take advantage of this part of our human nature by using it to fuel your goals. If you have a workout partner or goal buddy, you've got all you need for a friendly competition. See who can log more miles, or save more dollars, each week or month. See who can do more pushups or pullups. See who can lose the most weight or have the best abs or lose the most inches on their waist. Make sure the goals are weighted so that the competition is fairly equal. And mutually support each other in your goals.

Lowerlevel Processing

To reduce discrepancy by lowering one's personal goals, so that suboptimal performance is reappraised as acceptable (avoidance). A third option is to adopt self-critical and ruminative strategies that are liable to perpetuate worry about personal difficulties and interfere with task-relevant cognition (emotion-focus). Empirical studies, for example, are beginning to show that use of these coping strategies does indeed correlate with performance on certain tasks, and may mediate some effects of subjective state. Test anxiety relates to maladaptive patterns of coping (Matthews, Hillyard, & Campbell, 1999), that may influence intellectual functioning. In sum, the same appraisal and coping processes that control subjective state response to stressors may also influence how stress response impacts on performance, and consequently, changes in the external environment.

Goal Setting Getting What You Want

What is goal-setting We believe it is getting what you want. As should be clear by now, your brain can only follow the instructions you give it. To over-ride your habit, you need to give the brain a new set of well thought-out and quite specific instructions, over and over again. The instructions, or new goal(s), need to be so attractive that your brain wants to leave behind your habits and move towards the new you.

Relations of Competence Related Beliefs Achievement Values and Achievement Goals

With the emphasis in motivation theory on cognitive aspects of motivation, many motivation researchers have begun to study the goals children have for achievement. Researchers studying children's goals have focused on the content of these goals, relations between academic and social goals, and goal orientations children have toward achievement (see Chapter 8 by Anderman, Austin, and Johnson and Chapter 9 by Wentzel for review). Because goals and values both have to do with the purposes individuals have for engaging in different activities, we have been interested in exploring possible relations between children's achievement values and achievement goals, focusing on children's goal orientations (see Wigfield, 1994 Wigfield & Eccles, 1992). As discussed in greater detail in Chapter 8, for a number of years two kinds of goal orientations were the major focus of researchers. The first emphasizes individuals' attempts to master tasks and increase their competence. This orientation is...

Progress Progress Progress 5 Tips To Keep You Moving Forward

I returned the software and just looked at the wasted time as a lesson learned and hopefully one that will keep me from making the same mistake in the future. The big realization that I came to was the fact that forward progress brings on a sense of hope in reaching your goals which feeds your motivation and aids your success in life. But getting sidetracked by The Essential Motivation Handbook something that is not helping you reach your goals is a sure fire way of becoming discouraged and losing site of what you had set out to do. Because once you stop making progress, you will most definitely start to backslide into the mediocrity that you see all around you. This journey isn't about moving forward or standing still. It's more like being on a treadmill. It takes some effort to just keep from falling back, let alone making progress.

Tips For Motivational Recovery

It helps you feel like you are treating your body right. You feel like you've accomplished something good and, over time, you gain strength and energy. And besides all of that, exercising is a great way to clear your head when you are stressed. So make sure to get as much as your mind and body needs to stay driven to your goals.

Reconciling Differences between the Various Definitions

Although there is much similarity between and among the constructs that have been developed by various researchers, there are some subtle yet important differences. For example, Nicholls' model of goal orientations includes aspects of timing when students fee I particularly successful at a given task, whereas other goal orientation models (e.g., Ames & Archer, 1988 Dweck & Thorkildsen and Nicholls (1998) have argued that some of these differences emanate from the theoretical frameworks of some of the researchers. For example, Thorkildsen and Nicholls have suggested that Ames' work emanates from a social psychology perspective, whereas Dweck's work emanates from a personality psychology perspective. Consequently, differences in definitions and formulations of goal orientation theory may be related to differences in the training and worldviews of the various psychologists who study these orientations. In the present chapter, we adopt the terms mastery goals and performance goals....

How to Doggedly Pursue Your Dreams in the Face of Naysayers

I'm barely 17 (turning 18 next February), and I have set goals for my life. But in the world that we live in, where everyone's encouraged to get a steady job, find someone to settle down with, and have a family, I rarely find support for my crazy dreams. I want to live in Hong Kong, work in the fashion industry, and I refuse to get married before I turn 30, if I even find someone to marry.

The Development Of Social Goals

Way to think about development is to consider why children's goals change over time. In this case, the challenge is to identify the socialization processes that lead children to pursue certain goals and not others, and to adopt specific social orientations that direct behavior across multiple contexts and over time. Indeed, this is the central concern of educators and parents alike. One common explanation for how social influence occurs focuses on the motivational significance of children's social relationships. In general, it is hypothesized that children are more likely to adopt and internalize goals that are valued by adults when their relationships are nurturant and supportive as opposed to harsh and critical (see Grusec & Goodnow, 1994). The role of interpersonal relationships with parents and teachers in explanations of why students pursue social goals will be the focus of this section. Specifically, I will discuss ways in which models of socialization offer some insight into...

Social Orientations and Needs

Reflect consistent enforcement of rules, expectations for self-reliance and self-control, solicitation of children's opinions and feelings, and expressions of warmth and approval. Of interest for the present discussion is that they also have been useful in establishing links between parenting behavior and children's academic motivation, including intrinsic interest (Ginsberg & Bron-stein, 1996 Rathunde, 1996) and goal orientations toward learning (Hokoda & Fincham, 1995). Although these studies provide little evidence that specific parenting practices promote the consistent pursuit of specific social goals much less degrees of internalization, they do indicate that motivational processes may be a critical link between socialization experiences and academic outcomes. Moreover, this literature supports a conclusion that parent socialization processes can have an impact on children's motivation to achieve in contexts outside the home.

Implications for Understanding School Adjustment

Several other issues remain unresolved with respect to teacher influences on student goal setting. First, teachers tend to focus on different issues depending on the age of their students. For instance, teachers of early elementary and junior high school students tend to spend more of their time on issues related to social conduct than do teachers at other grade levels (Bro-phy & Evertson, 1978). In addition, the contribution of various socialization agents to the development and internalization of goals and values might also change with age. Whereas parents and teachers might facilitate the learning and adoption of goals in young children, peers might play an increasingly important role as children reach adolescence. It is likely that developmental influences and changes that orient children to either adults or peers for guidance are central to explanations of context-specific goal pursuit, and to the question of how the content of students' goals changes with age. One obvious...

The Role of Developmental Differences In Working Memory

As outlined in Table 1, self-regulated learning is a constellation of complex cognitive and metacognitive processes in which students set goals for themselves, monitor their progress toward their goals, and then attempt to Current cognitive models propose that working memory (defined in various ways) represents the central theoretical construct that underlies and supports the maintenance of task-relevant information during the performance of a cognitive task (Shah & Miyake, 1999). In these models the operation of working memory is mainly responsible for the limitations in the use of cognitive resources such as capacity, attentional focus, and speed of processing. Given that self-regulated learning is a complex cognitive process that clearly involves the maintenance of task-relevant information during the performance of a cognitive task, then working memory functioning should be related to self-regulated learning. For example, most models of working memory include an individual's...

US Beliefs About Learning

As indicated in Table 14.1, three main U.S. purposes emerged from Li's data (a) Cultivate the mind-understand the world, (b) develop one's ability-skill, and (c) reach personal goals. The most frequent reference to purpose of learning among U. S. respondents is cultivating one's mind and understanding the world. As an essential part of the Western intellectual tradition, also explicitly articulated in Bacon's vision, the mind is assumed to have most importance in human intellectual functioning. As discussed earlier, the notion of intelligence as a capacity lies centrally in the mind. The mind enables one to learn, but it also develops or becomes sharpened as a result of exposure to stimulating environment that demands its proper use. Understanding of the world is not limited to certain aspects of the world but all that can be known by the mind or all that the person desires to know such as the physical, social, moral, psychological, and spiritual, disciplined...

The Role of Theories in the Development of Self Regulation

Ever, it is an interesting paradox that the theory of mind research suggests that children aged 5 and older could be described as naive constructivists or relativists, given their reliance on a representational perspective which recognizes that individuals work off their perceptions of reality, not reality itself. However, the epistemological beliefs research has suggested that most pre-college-age students are objectivists. As Chandler, Hallet, and Sokol (2002) have pointed out, this state of affairs seems impossible on the face of the data and theories. They suggest that young children are constructivists in a narrow retail sense in terms of specific tasks or domains, while with the development of the ability of abstraction, adolescents become constructivists at the wholesale level, where their relativism pervades all their thinking and reasoning. In any event, it seems likely that an adoption of a more con-structivist perspective would facilitate efforts at self-regulation, which...

The Role Of Motivational Factors In The Development Of Selfregulated Learning

On three general constructs efficacy-competence judgments, interest and value beliefs, and goal orientations. In addition, we will focus on students' own personal beliefs and perceptions of motivation, although it is clear that all three of these general motivational constructs are heavily influenced by contextual factors in classrooms and schools. As with the cognitive factors, the motivational factors might influence the development of self-regulation through two basic avenues of changing goal structures and improving self-regulatory processing.

The Role of Interest and Value Beliefs

There has been a great deal of research on the role of goal orientation in self-regulated learning (see Pintrich, 2000c, for a review). In general, this research has examined how approach mastery goals and approach-avoid performance goals are related to the use of a wide variety of self-regulatory strategies. There is good deal of converging evidence regarding the positive influence of mastery goals on the different components of self-regulated learning. That is, if individuals set their general criterion or standard for academic tasks to be learning and improving, then as they monitor their performance and attempt to control and regulate it, this standard should guide them towards the use of more self-regulatory processes. In fact, the vast majority of the empirical evidence from both experimental laboratory studies and correlational classroom studies suggest just such a stable generalization. Students who adopt or endorse an approach mastery goal orientation do engage in more...

Duality of Attention and Processing The Task and the Self

Duality of attention and processing is based on the fact that a human agent can perform a task (object 1) and at the same time have self-awareness that he or she is performing a task at hand and that how he or she feels about the task or content involved (object 2). This is the doer-watcher duality pointed out by James (1950). Piaget (1950,1981) conceptualized the interplay of cognition and affect in terms of this duality. Besides primary action that defines an enactive agent (subject) and an impinging environment (object), with cognition as instrument and affect instigating action, there is secondary action, the agent's reaction to his or her own action. This reaction takes the form of feeling or affect (emotion), and regulates primary action by assigning meaning and valence to the task, and subsequently prioritizing personal goals (see also Simon, 1967, 1994). Damasio (1999, 2000) also sees this duality as critical for understanding the nature of extended consciousness and the...

The Moderating Role of Gender and Ethnicity

Example, Zimmerman & Martinez-Pons (1990) discovered comparatively more girls than boys to employ strategies that optimize immediate learning environments (e.g., record keeping and monitoring, environmental structuring) and personal regulation (e.g., goal setting). Ablard and Lipschultz (1998), who used a similar procedure to that of Zimmerman and Martinez-Pons, also found greater use of such strategies among girls in their sample, even after adjusting for covariates such as mastery goal orientation. At the same time, however, they found that use of these strategies by girls varied depending on the learning context. However, if we assume that the relatively lower perceptions of efficacy for females reflect the possibility that females are better calibrated than males (i.e., it is not so much that females are underestimators, but that males are overestimators), then it follows that females would be more likely to be self-regulating, given their better accuracy at monitoring their...

Integration of Neurobiological Psychological Behavioral Functional and Phenomenological Levels of Analysis Emergentism

As discussed earlier, integrative efforts can be seen as operating with three distinct epistemological stances or levels of analysis neurobiological, psychological-behavioral, and phenomenological. Unifying these approaches would mean forging a marriage between the sciences of the biological and the sciences of the subjective (Bruner, 1996, p. 12), with the sciences of functional behavior in-between. No wonder why some would question whether such a marriage is a possible, or even desirable, one (Kendler, 1987 Shweder, 2001). However, the dream of putting it all together, of forging the unity or consilience of the natural and human sciences, is very much alive and well (e.g., Damasio et al., 2001). According to Sternberg and Grigorenko (2001), a unified psychology is possible if we (a) focus on psychological phenomena rather than compartmentalizing psychology into isolated components, and (b) use convergent operations rather than insulated single research paradigms. Dweck's (1999 Dweck...

Self Regulation as a Depletable Resource

In summary, the resource depletion self-control model offers some interesting hypotheses about the development of self-regulated learning that need to be tested empirically. Some of these hypotheses diverge from expectations that would be generated under working memory and expertise models that have been used more often in self-regulated learning research. At the same time, it is possible that there may be multiple systems operating, including multiple working memory systems (reflecting the domain-specificity principle) as well as a general self-control resource depletion system, and that self-regulated learning implicates both systems. In addition, the self-control research may apply more to problems of inhibition or avoiding unwanted goals, rather than of approaching desired goals. As self-regulated learning involves working towards desired goals of learning and understanding, not just avoiding negative goals, the resource depletion model may only apply to certain aspects of...

What Develops In Selfregulated Learning

In our definition, self-regulated learning is an active, constructive process whereby learners set goals for their learning and then attempt to monitor, regulate, and control their cognition, motivation, and behavior in the service of those goals, guided and constrained by both personal characteristics and the contextual features in the environment (Pintrich, 2000c). This definition is similar to other models of academic self-regulated learning (e.g., Butler & Winne, 1995 Zimmerman, 1986 1989, 1998a, 1998b, 2000), although there is great diversity in general models of self-regulation (see Boekaerts, Pintrich & Zeidner, 2000). Our definition is relatively simple, but the remainder of this section outlines the various processes and areas of regulation and their appli Table 1 displays a framework for classifying the different phases and areas for regulation. The four phases that make up the rows of the table are processes that many models of regulation and self-regulation share...

Chinese Beliefs About Learning

The second purpose, acquiring knowledge and skills for self, is reminiscent of the U.S. second purpose, developing one's ability and skill, although Chinese respondents seemed to stress mastery of knowledge more whereas the U.S. respondents elaborated more on developing ability. For Chinese model learners, knowledge and skill are also needed for survival, self-sufficiency, and successful careers. Similarly, these skills are seen as enabling and empowering them to solve problems, maintain satisfying social relations, and reach their personal goals. Notice that lizhi is not to be confused with career goal setting, although it may coincide with it, but searching for an inspirational purpose in the large framework of the three purposes discussed earlier in order to channel one's lifelong learning. Here, Liu Xiang's story sets a good example of lizhi for the king to start to self-cultivate even at age seventy.

Social Goals as Generalized Motivational Orientations

Orientations that guide problem solving in social situations (Dweck & Leggett, 1988). These goal orientations are hypothesized to result in individuals interpreting situations as either providing opportunities for positive evaluation and gaining social approval or avoiding social disapproval (social performance goals) or providing opportunities to learn and form new relationships (social learning goals). Dweck and her colleagues (Erdley, Cain, Loomis, Dumas-Hines, & Dweck, 1997) examined children's social goal orientations within the context of making friends. Using an experimental format in which children experienced failure when trying to obtain a pen pal, these authors demonstrated that children endorse goals to learn about and develop new relationships (social learning goal orientations) and to obtain social approval or to avoid social disapproval (social performance goal orientations) in response to hypothetical social situations. They further demonstrated that these social...

Traits States and the Trilogy of Mind An Adaptive Perspective on Intellectual Functioning

Real-world intellectual problem-solving operates in concert with motivational and emotional processes, sometimes harmoniously and sometimes discordantly. Our aim in this chapter is to explore the nature of systematic individual differences in the process of solving problems posed by adaptation to life challenges. We focus on personality as a systematic influence on cognition, motivation and affect, in line with Kihlstrom and Cantor's (2000) suggestion that personality represents social intelligence. That is, personality reflects the cognitive structures that guide the individual's interpersonal behavior in solving the problems of everyday social life. As Kihlstrom and Cantor (2000) stated, social behavior is intelligent cognitive processes of perception, memory, and reasoning support progress toward personal goals. In this chapter, we outline a cognitive-adaptive perspective on the overlaps between emotion, cognition and motivation found in differential psychology. It explains trait...

Social Goal Pursuit as an Aspect of Competence

A second perspective on social goals is based on the assumption that pursuit of specific social goals is a critical aspect of situational competence. In contrast to the social-cognitive approach, this perspective does not focus on children's understanding of which goals are appropriate in a given social situation but rather on the extent to which pursuit of certain socially valued goals contributes to situation-specific competence. Indeed, Bronfenbrenner (1989) argues that competence can be understood only in terms of context-specific effectiveness, that is, mastery of culturally and socially defined tasks. Therefore, competence is not only the achievement of personal goals, but of ways in which an individual contributes to the smooth functioning of the social group. With respect to goal pursuit, this implies that effective functioning in social settings requires the achievement of goals that result in approval and acceptance by the social group, as well as those resulting in the...

Perspectives On Social Goals

What are social goals Although definitions vary slightly as a function of theoretical perspective, goals are generally referred to as cognitive representations of future events that are powerful motivators of behavior (Austin & Vancouver, 1996 Bandura, 1986 Ford, 1992 Pervin, 1983). An underlying assumption of this definition is that people do set goals for themselves and in the case of social goals, to achieve specific social outcomes (e.g., making a friend) or to interact with others in certain ways (e.g., helping someone with a problem). Despite this common definition, researchers have studied social goals from three fairly distinct perspectives. First, researchers have investigated children's knowledge about and choice of social goals as a social-cognitive skill. Based on models of social information processing (e.g., Crick & Dodge, 1994 Dodge, 1986 Ford, 1984), this perspective highlights children's interpretations of social situations and their knowledge of which goals are...

The Yin And Yang Of Persistence

To be successful in anything you must practice persistence. Without it we would give up the first time we failed. But there's more to it than just having a 'never give up' attitude. In this chapter I want to present you with the different ways of persisting and which ones will help you reach your goals. Is blind persistence a good thing Should you really 'never give up' Let's go deeper into the facets of this key act trait and see how we should be utilizing our abilities to 'push through the pain' so we may reach our goals and obtain our dreams.

Challenges And Future Directions

Prior research has addressed the role of interest in text learning (Hidi, 2001 Schiefele, 1996, 1999), the interrelation between interest, personal goals, and self-concept (Hannover, 1998), and the effects of interest on learning at different developmental stages and across a variety of educational contexts, including preschool and elementary school (Renninger, 1992 Renninger et al., 2002 Renninger & Hidi, 2002), secondary school (Baumert & K ller, 1998 Renninger et al., 2003), college and university (Alexander et al., 1997 Harackiewicz et al., 2000 Krapp, 1997 Schiefele, 1999), and vocational education and training (Krapp & Lewalter, 2001 Krapp & Wild, 1998 Prenzel et al., 1998). A related line of research is focused on identifying mediating variables that can explain the (positive) effects of interest-based learning in terms of functional processes (Schiefele & Rheinberg, 1997). Mediating variables that have been analyzed in some detail include attention (Ainley et...

Support for Competence

Not to need assistance (van derMeij, 1988). During whole-class activity, questioning tends to flow in the direction of teacher-to-student rather than student-to-teacher (Cazden, 1986). In front of all their classmates, students tend to be concerned about social comparison and potential embarrassment (i.e., factors that inhibit help seeking Rosen, 1983 Shapiro, 1983). Small-group activity, on the other hand, is explicitly designed to promote children collaborating with one another, for example, by requesting and giving help (see Webb & Palincsar, 1996). Students working in small groups, in contrast to those working individually or in a whole-class activity, are more likely to seek assistance from other students as well as from the teacher (Nelson-Le Gall & Glor-Scheib, 1985). When working collaboratively, children experience a relative lack of social comparison and presumably less inhibition against help seeking. In particular, when group composition emphasizes diversity and...

Purpose Of The Book

We wanted this volume to present a comprehensive overview of the different theoretical models of motivation as well as the constructs associated with these models, in order to provide as complete a picture as possible of where the field is going. We thus wanted the book to be an eclectic collection, rather than an in-depth look at one particular motivation theory. Although not all current models are represented, most are, including self-efficacy theory, self-worth theory, expectancy-value theory, entity vs. incremental intelligence theory, self-determination theory, interest theory, goal orientation theory, and social goal theory. The prevalence of the term self is not an accident self-oriented theories dominate the field of motivation today. A major concern we have about the motivation field is the proliferation of terms for constructs that on the surface are relatively similar. The clearest examples of this is the variety of related-to perceptions of ability and self-efficacy, and...


People often derive categories while constructing plans to achieve goals. In constructing the plan for a vacation to San Francisco, someone might derive the categories of departure times that minimize work disruption, people to visit in California, and things to pack in a small suitcase. An infinite number of goal-derived categories exist, 'moXu mgfoods to eat on a diet, clothing to wear while house painting, grocery stores that sell fresh herbs, activities to do on a vacation in Japan with one's grandmother, and so forth. Many of these are ad hoc categories, not established in memory but derived impromptu to achieve a current and novel goal. Whereas some goal-derived categories become well established in memory from being processed on numerous occasions, many others are ad hoc, having never been relevant before. For example, foods to eat on a diet might be a well-established, goal-derived category for someone who diets often, but activities to do on a vacation in Japan with one's...


In general, adaptation involves a multitude of independent processes, at different levels of abstraction. However, despite the distributed nature of adaptive processing, individual differences are given coherence by self-regulation. Over the long term, self-regulation supports personal goals and aspirations. Understanding the individual's long-term goals is necessarily ideographic (Kihlstrom & Cantor, 2000), but we can identify some consistencies associated with personality traits. We have argued that traits represent adaptations to the major challenges of human life that constrain long-term self-regulation, shaped by both heredity and social learning. For example, if extraversion represents adaptation to cognitively demanding social environments, we expect that, typically, extraverts' long-term goals will involve what are, in the occupational field, termed social and enterprising interests (e.g., Ackerman & Heggestad, 1997).

Sex Differences

(defined by the performance of the behaviors themselves, not children's experiences of the behaviors), including more goal setting and planning, keeping records and self-monitoring, and environmental structuring (Zimmerman & Martinez-Pons, 1990). Integrating our findings of no differences in overall self-determination for school with these results, we suggest that there may be a less direct link between feelings of self-determination and behavior for girls girls may be more likely to engage in strategies advocated by the teacher even when they do not feel autonomous themselves. In other words, they may engage in good study behaviors not because they enjoy the topic or wish to learn more, but because they want to please others.

Motivation In Music

Expectations, Values, and Goal Orientations Another contemporary perspective on achievement motivation is concerned with the manner in which individuals orient themselves to learning situations and the reasons that they cite for their success or failure in achieving a particular goal. The empirical foundation for this perspective is based on observations of students who are exposed to experimentally induced failure (i.e., attempting extremely difficult tasks or being told that their responses are incorrect regardless of their actual performance Diener & Dweck, 1978). Under these conditions, many children give up and are resigned to the attitude that they simply lack the ability to succeed at the task. This attitude is labeled as a performance or ego orientation, with the implication that the child is forming a theory of competence based on the lack of a stable ability that appears to be present among their relatively successful peers. Some children, however, take a more adaptive...


As one example, for a longitudinal study of chess skill acquisition, participants could be tested initially to ascertain individual differences in the kinds of intrapersonal variables reviewed earlier (expectations and values, self-efficacy and skill attributions, personality traits and goal orientations) along with interpersonal variables (parental, peer, and teacher influences, organizational and material resources) as well as some type of psychometric battery of perceptual and cognitive tasks to examine the predictive value of traditional intelligence-related constructs (mental speed, working memory, deductive reasoning). The sample could then be reinterviewed and retested over a long enough interval, perhaps 10 years, on the previous variables, along with representative tasks from the domain of interest, over the subsequent decade. In addition to providing a fairly strong empirical test of the oft-cited 10-year rule for the attainment of expertise (e.g., Simon & Chase, 1973),...


Individuals' achievement goal orientations change in a variety of ways throughout childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. However, research is delivering more and more evidence that these changes are a function of changing learning environments, rather than enduring personality traits of individual learners. As students move through most educational systems, the systems tend to demand more and more of students. Whereas early childhood programs and elementary schools often do not focus on children's ability and on ability differences, as students progress through elementary school and move into secondary schools, there is an increasing emphasis on ability, performance, and grades (Eccles & Midgley, 1989). Not all students move on to college, but those who do often face highly competitive environments there (Harackiewicz, Barron, Carter, Lehto, & Elliot, 1997). Because students tend to adopt the types of achievement goal orientations fostered by their learning environments (Maehr,...

New Areas of Inquiry

Research on the development of goal orientation is still nascent indeed, there are many promising areas for exploration. Two areas that are particularly promising are (1) the study of gender and ethnic differences in goal orientations and (2) the study of domain differences in goal orientations. Gender and Ethnic Differences in Goal Orientations Few studies have addressed gender and ethnic differences in goal orientations. Although some research has been done on these topics, there are still areas that have not been explored in depth. Nevertheless, there is some research that indicates that achievement goal orientations may operate differently for different students. There are mixed results regarding gender differences in goal orientations. Results of some studies suggest that males are more performance oriented Although the results of studies of gender and goal orientations appear to be mixed, there appears to be growing evidence that in many learning situations, males may be...

Setting Goals

You may find that the very process of choosing goals brings up a certain amount of emotional resistance in you. You might experience this in various different ways, such as feeling depressed, hopeless, or overwhelmed at the thought of trying to set goals. Or you might feel the desire to distract yourself by eating, sleeping, or other activities. These emotional reactions (if you should have them) are clues to the ways in which you avoid getting what you want in life. It's important to go ahead and experience these feelings and reactions, to go through them, and proceed with the process. Once you get into it you will find it of value. It's great to write your goals in the form of affirmations, as if they have already been achieved. This helps to achieve a clearer, stronger effect. For example In writing your goals, be sure to put down things that are real and meaningful to you, things that you actually want, not what you think you should want. No one else need ever see your goals...


Social goal setting is a multifaceted and complex process. As described in this chapter, goal setting involves interpreting social situations and deciding which goals are appropriate or inappropriate to pursue under which conditions it involves choices that can lead to socially competent or incompetent behavior, and it requires coordination of global social needs and the demands of specific situations. In the classroom, this process is translated into one of gaining knowledge about the social expectations, rules, and norms in individual classrooms, choosing to adhere to those that will bring success as a student, and achieving social needs in the form of classroom goals that have taken on personal value. How and why these social goal setting processes develop is not well understood. Indeed, even the most basic descriptive research has not been done. However, we are beginning to gain some insight into socialization factors that can promote social competence in the classroom. In...

Treasure Maps

Create a treasure map for a single goal or area of your life, so that you can be sure to include all the elements without getting too complicated. This enables the mind to focus on it more clearly and easily than if you include all your goals on one treasure map. You might want to do one treasure map for your relationships, one for your job, one for your spiritual growth, and so on.

Health and Beauty

For example, if you like to run, picture yourself running very swiftly, smoothly, and tirelessly. While you are running, imagine that you are taking a huge leap with every step, covering vast territory effortlessly, almost flying. During relaxation periods, affirm to yourself that you are daily growing faster, stronger, and in better physical shape. Picture yourself winning races, if that is one of your goals.

Support for Autonomy

To fully understand how teachers may facilitate adaptive help seeking, it is necessary to consider not just contextual goals but also students' personal goals. These are trait-like orientations that students bring with them to the classroom (Dweck & Leggett, 1988). Past research focusing on personal goals and help seeking has distinguished between personal learning goals (or intrinsic goal orientation) and personal performance goals (or extrinsic goal orientation). When faced with difficult math problems they cannot do on their own, fourth and fifth grade students with personal learning goals tend to request feedback about whether their work is right or not. Students with personal performance goals tend not to be interested in this sort of information (Newman, 1998). According to Harter (1981), and consistent with the notion of multiple goals (Wentzel, 1992), there are several different components of intrinsic goal orientation (e.g., striving for independent mastery, preference for...

Leaving A Legacy

Leaving A Legacy

Learn how helping others benefits you and how you can begin accomplishing powerful goals in the process. Within this product you will learn the secrets behind having inner peace and inspiring others.

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